In Greek mythology, Chryseis (the ancient name for Chrysiida) was a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses. Chryseis, her apparent name in the Iliad, means simply “Chryses’ daughter”; later writers give her real name as Astynome. In the first book of the Iliad, Agamemnon enslaves her, whom he admits is finer than his own wife, as a war prize and refuses to allow her father, a priest of Apollo, to ransom her.
An oracle of Apollo then sends a plague sweeping through the Greek armies, and Agamemnon is forced to give Chryseis back in order to end it, so Agamemnon sends Odysseus to return Chryseis to her father. Agamemnon compensates himself for this loss by taking Briseis from Achilles, an act that offends Achilles, who refuses to take further part in the Trojan War. A later Greek legend, preserved in Hyginus’ Fabulae, states that she had a son by Agamemnon.
In Greek mythology, Achilles (the ancient name for Achilleas) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad. Achilles was said to be a demigod; his mother was the nymph Thetis, and his father, Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons.
Achilles’ most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector outside the gates of Troy. Although the death of Achilles is not presented in the Iliad, other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War by Paris, who shot him in the heel with an arrow.
Later legends (beginning with a poem by Statius in the 1st century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. Because of his death from a small wound in the heel, the term Achilles’ heel has come to mean a person’s point of weakness.
n Greek mythology, Agamemnon was the son of king Atreus and queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra, Orestes and Chrysothemis. Mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area.
When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was abducted by Paris of Troy, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War. On Agamemnon’s return from Troy he was murdered by Aegisthus, the lover of his wife Clytemnestra.
In old versions of the story: “The scene of the murder, when it is specified, is usually the house of Aegisthus, who has not taken up residence in Agamemnon’s palace, and it involves an ambush and the deaths of Agamemnon’s followers too”. In some later versions Clytemnestra herself does the killing, or they do it together, in his own home.
Her real name was Hippodameia. Vriseas was the brother of Chrysis, Chrysiida’s father. Lyrnissos was captured and destroyed by Achilles, who then killed Vrisiida’s husband, Mynita, and her three brothers, and took her prisoner. To comfort her, Patroclus promised to marry her to her abductor, whom she became her favored and beloved slave.
Later, when the assembly of the besiegers in the Trojan War forced Agamemnon, on the advice of the soothsayer Calchas, to return his slave, Chrysiida, to her father, Agamemnon demanded Vrisiida in return. He sent his messengers, Talthybius and Eurybatus, and they took Vrisiida from Achilles. After that, Achilles became angry and refused to fight. This anger (“month”) of Achilles is the subject of the epic Iliad of Homer, as written in the first two verses of this famous work.
The abstention of Achilles cost the retreat of the Greeks to the battle and the death of his friend, Patroclus. Agamemnon was finally forced to return Vrisiida, unscathed as he had sworn, and Achilles re-entered the battle.